Available games (and chances of seeing ) a bamboo. Case study of Tana River in Kenya. J Environ Manag 231:576–581, Njuguna SM, Yan X, Gituru RW, Wang Q, Wang J (2017) Assessment of macrophyte, heavy metal, and nutrient concentrations in the water of the Nairobi River Kenya. Kenya. There was a significant difference in concentration of potentially toxic elements among different sites. Special … High concentration of iron in drinking water has been reported to cause muscle crumps, severe constipation, headache, gastric ulcers, malignant tumor and even rapid heart pulses in some instances [9, 33]. Strong positive correlation observed between Al–Cr and Cr–Co may imply Cr was from both natural and anthropogenic sources since Al and Cr are widely distributed in earth crust [13]. Copper and Cr may be from herbicides, while Al and B may be from both natural sources and waste water containing Al used in coagulation and B from detergents [7, 13, 42]. According to the brother, they agreed to catch a glimpse of river Ewaso Nyiro downstream where Thomson's Falls is located. Home Home. A strong positive correlation, p > 0.01, was observed between Cu and Cr, Cu and Al, in wet season. The highest concentrations of Mn and Co were detected at site 7 that was under agricultural production and was experiencing fuel leak that was contaminating river water. The area around the forest reserve has very high agricultural potential due to the fertile soils and reliable rainfall. Birds of Samburu national park The current research has employed recommended concentration in human and livestock drinking and irrigation water as reference values. Opposite KEBS offices TEL: +254-020- 2342438 TEL: +254-729- 255246 E-MAIL: info@lbdc.go.ke The Ewaso Nyiro is a large river of 50-100 m wide and for the biggest part of the year, animals can walk across. For years now, experts have been puzzled by something about River Mutara in Laikipia County. The Reserve sits to the north of the river, which separates it from Buffalo Springs National Reserve. The forest has a rich diversity of fauna and flora which make it of interest to tourists. Immense pressure on water resources has resulted in pollution, jeopardizing human health [37]. Samburu takes its name from the nomadic tribe who live throughout this area. the ultimate goal of establishing High concentration of Fe in drinking water on the other hand is associated with malignant tumor and causes persistence of hepatitis B and C besides being linked to kidney, lung, liver and stomach cancers [18]. The Authority established farms along the border thus providing a source of income and employment in the area hence reducing conflict. Chem Speciat Bioavailab 19(2):75–85, Saleem M, Iqbal J, Shah MH (2019) Seasonal variations, risk assessment and multivariate analysis of trace metals in the freshwater reservoirs of Pakistan. Samples were later taken to the laboratory where they were filtered using 0.45-µm cellulose acetate membrane filter, acidified with nitric acid to pH > 2 and refrigerated at 4 °C before commencement of the analysis. Cluster A in wet season dendrogram was composed of Cu, Cr, Al and B. The PLI which is an integrated tool for determining pollution of a certain group of pollutants (metals) was also applied, as indicated in Eq. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. SN Appl. Toxicol Rep 5:156–163, De Leeuw J, Said MY, Kifugo S, Musyimi Z, Mutiga JK, Peden D (2012) Benefits of riverine water discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya. Ideally, the least net worth expected from the applicant should be at least 1.5 times of the proposed investment. XY had the original idea for the study. The river is the principal source of domestic and irrigation water to the arid north of Kenya. It is bordered to the south by Ewaso Nyiro River, which separates it from the Buffalo Springs National Reserve. Environ Pollut 242:1128–1136, Geology and mineral resource potential of Kenya (2015), Giné GR, Pérez A (2013) Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: the wash poverty Index. Domestic use of polluted water is thus highly likely, and this may predispose innocent and poor people to deleterious effects of potentially toxic elements. Heavy metals and nutrients were distributed from the catchment to the middle reaches without a properly defined pattern. High concentration of Al, Fe and Mn has been recorded in other water bodies in Kenya. RG assisted in research permit acquisition. Source: UGC Most people ask, "Which county is Ewaso Ng'iro in?" It is bordered to the south by Ewaso Nyiro River, which separates it from the Buffalo Springs National Reserve.. The dry season starts in late May, and goes up to early October during when large concentration of wildlife is found in the reserve due to availability of lush vegetation along the Ewaso Nyiro River, the main source of water to the Reserve and the nearby communities. Nitrate was the only pollutant in cluster D and was from leached fertilizer infiltrating into the aquatic ecosystem. The Reserve lies within ecological zone V- which is classified as arid and semi- arid with moisture index of 42 to 57, which indicate that evapo-transpiration is … Source: UGC. Previous documented studies of Ewaso Nyiro were based on water management, scarcity and conflicts [22, 41]. Al, Cu and Fe were in component one and had significant positive loading, > 0.9. The forest has a rich diversity of fauna and flora which make it of interest to tourists. Similarly, exceedingly high concentration of Mn and Fe was registered in three sites for Mn and four sites for Fe in the dry season. Aluminum and Fe may have originated from Andisol soils that are common in the study area [31]. Donors. Poor agronomic practices such as the use of Co- and Cu-based herbicides close to riparian zone may have contributed in Ewaso Nyiro River pollution. The Ewaso Nyiro River is the main source of water in this otherwise harsh and dry country. Consequently, the use of Ewaso Nyiro River water for livestock and irrigation purposes should be done with caution due to considerable Fe and very high Mn contamination. Main economic activities in Ewaso Nyiro basin include large- and small-scale horticulture crops production in the upper reaches and livestock rearing downstream of the basin. Environ Pollut 241:938–949, Udechukwu BE, Ismail A, Zulkifli SZ, Omar H (2015) Distribution, mobility, and pollution assessment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe in intertidal surface sediments of Sg. Ewaso Ng'iro River The river's name is derived from the local community's language. Sampling was done 15 cm below water surface using precleaned one-liter polyethylene bottles. Two major physical features influence the climatic and drainage patterns within this landscape: the Aberdare ranges system to the southwest that forms the source of Ewaso Nyiro River and Mt. Twenty-seven and 40% of sampled sites in dry and wet seasons, respectively, had more than 0.3 mg/L of iron that is recommended by USEPA in drinking water. The Authority plans to expand the production area to 625 acres, which is the threshold for establishment of a tea factory. by ewaso. This project was supported by Sino-Africa Joint Research Center (Number: SAJC201601), Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Sciences of China, (Number: NSFC 31361140360). Contaminated water causes over 5 million annual deaths worldwide [36]. The mean annual rainfall is 354 mm with peaks in November and April. Water off-take in the system has been fraught with problems, particularly during the dry spells when much of the sub-catchments river … It is bordered to the south by Ewaso Nyiro River, which separates it from the Buffalo Springs National Reserve. Analysis to determine concentration of heavy metals in water was determined using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES (5100, Agilent Technologies), while nitrate (NO3−) was determined by calorimetric method. Food Policy 47:34–45, Zeng X, Liu Y, You S, Zeng G, Tan X, Hu X, Li F (2015) Spatial distribution, health risk assessment and statistical source identification of the trace elements in surface water from the Xiangjiang River, China. Almer C, Laurent-Lucchetti J, Oechslin M (2017) Water scarcity and rioting: disaggregated evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. The Ewaso Nyiro River Camel Caravan Community voices. Numerous incidences of high Fe in Kenyan drinking water have been reported. It provides a source of water for most of the year, although the river can dry up in the months before the start of the long rains. 1, 15 samples for each season. Based on a directive by the Water Resources Management … It is also called by some the "Ewaso Nyiro." 4 Ewaso Nyiro River lions Westgate Conservancy. An excited Jemimah identified a huge rock on the river bank on which she stood and posed while his brother captured the moments. The dry season starts in late May, and goes up to early October when a large concentration of wildlife is found in the reserve due to availability of lush vegetation along the Ewaso Nyiro River, the main source of water to the Reserve and the nearby communities. ENSDA is in the process of Exp Health 8:31–41, Marshall S (2011) The water crisis in Kenya: causes, effects and solutions. Water Res 39:2291–2300, Guan Q, Cai A, Wang F, Wang L, Wu T, Pan B, Lu M (2016) Heavy metals in the riverbed surface sediment of the Yellow River, China. It is used in agricultural production, domestic use and industrial activities since it is a universal solvent. It crosses the border into Tanzania, where it empties into Lake Natron. The waters of this great river draw wildlife in great numbers to its banks, creating an oasis of green. for the establishment of Ecological and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in Ewaso Nyiro River surface water, Kenya, $${\text{CF}} = C_{{{\text{metal}}}} /C_{{{\text{reference}}}}.$$, $${\text{PLI}} = \left( {{\text{CF}}_{1} X\,{\text{CF}}_{2} X\,{\text{CF}}_{3} X \ldots X\,{\text{CF}}_{n} } \right)1/n$$, $${\text{ER}} = T_{i} \times {\text{CF}}$$, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-04067-1, Earth and Environmental Sciences: Pollution and Health Impacts. Puloh mangrove estuary Malaysia. To apply for water tenders Kenya, you need to fulfil the following requirements: The net worth of the firm or the individual applying for the tender should be positive. View of the Ewaso Nyiro River in the Samburu National Reserve in Kenya. There was a significant difference in concentration of pollutants in different sites and seasons as indicated in Table 2. There were four clusters in both wet and dry seasons as indicated in Figs. The Implementing … If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. There are two entrances—the Ngare Mare and the Buffalo Springs gates—both easily accessible. Yet, with no significant. Opposite KEBS offices TEL: +254-020- 2342438 TEL: +254-729- 255246 E-MAIL: info@lbdc.go.ke The basin covers 210,226 km2, bearing 5.8% of Kenya water potential, and has an average annual rainfall of 411 mm and 1469 million m3 annual yield [19, 49]. The Ewaso Nyiro River is the most important water source in the study area. Cite this article. This is the homeland of the Samburu people who were drawn here by the Ewaso Nyiro River which provided a reliable water source for their cattle. To determine metal and nutrient concentration of Ewaso Nyiro River surface water, a total of 30 water samples, 15 samples each for dry (February) and wet (August) seasons of 2019, were collected. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:9400–9412, Zhao L, Mi D, Chen Y, Wang L, Sun Y (2015) Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin. Chemos 216:715–724, Sharifi Z, Hossaini SMT, Renella G (2016) Risk assessment for sediment and stream water polluted by heavy metals released by a municipal solid waste composting plant. The Aberdares National Park located north of the forest receives more than 50,000 tourists every year. Water sampling sites were distributed around the catchment and middle reaches up to Archers post since lower reaches had dried during the dry season. Cobalt and Mn were in cluster C and may have been from herbicides and fuel leaking into the river water. The river is the principal source of domestic and irrigation water to the arid north of Kenya. In the arid North of Kenya, water means life. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Two principal components that explained 80.8% of total variance were extracted at eigenvalue > 1 in wet season, as given in Table 5. (de) L'Ewaso Ng'iro est une rivière du Kenya qui prend sa source sur le versant oriental du Mont Kenya et coule en direction du nord avant de prendre une direction est puis sud-est. The area around the forest reserve has very high agricultural potential due to the fertile soils and reliable rainfall. Proper agronomic practices should be encouraged to curb Mn and Co pollution besides introduction of macrophytes such as Cyperus articulatus and Typha latifolia in Ewaso Nyiro ecosystem for Fe and Al phytoremediation, respectively. 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