A measure of dispersion appears to serve two purposes, It is one of the most important quantities used to characterize a frequency distribution. Measures of Dispersion 29 MEASURES OF DISPERSION You have learnt various measures of central tendency. Measures of Dispersion. Range is not based on all the observations of the series. - The uses of different measures of Central Tendency are as following: Depends upon three considerations: 1. Measures of Dispersion or Variability. Batsman A: 25, 20, 45, 93, 8, 14, 32, 87, 72, 4 This averaged deviation or dispersion is nothing else, but the average of the second order. Measures of Dispersion Studying this chapter should enable you to: • know the limitations of averages; • appreciate the need for measures of dispersion; • enumerate various measures of dispersion; • calculate the measures and compare them; • distinguish between absolute and relative measures. In other words, Dispersion is the extent to which values in a distribution differ from the average of the distribution. The measure of dispersion shows the homogeneity or the heterogeneity of the distribution of the observations. Process; Sample Code; Screenshots; Process. To achieve the required degree of result one tries to compare the variability in the data. A. Quartile Deviation. Standard Deviation. View Answer Workspace. After reading this article you will learn about the definitions and importance of dispersion. Q.6. ...Measures of Central Tendency Objectives of the chapter • To use summary statistics to describe collections of data • The main goal is to come up with the one single number that best describes a distribution of scores. It is usually used in conjunction with a measure of central tendency, such as the mean or median, to provide an overall description of a set of data. The QD is smallest, the MD next and the SD is largest in the following percentage: QD = 2/3sd or sd = 3/2 QD and MD = 4/5sd or sd = 5/4MD. ADVERTISEMENTS: There are four commonly used measures to indicate the variability (or dispersion) within a set of measures. However, because it takes into account only the scores that lie at the two extremes, it is of limited use. Can the central tendency describe the data fully and adequately? 3. It explains the disparity of data from one another delivering a precise view of the distribution of data. Disclaimer 9. As in median, last value may be 15 or 15000 in the series 3, 5, 7, 9, 15 (15000); does not effect at all. Lets look at the first of the relative measures of dispersion. 2. Measures of dispersion measure how spread out a set of data is. It tells the variation of the data from one another and gives a clear idea about the distribution of the data. Average Deviation 4. As the name suggests, the measure of dispersion shows the scatterings of the data. It helps us to make only a rough comparison of two or more groups of variability. Ram Rahim Maria 1. It is a relative measure of dispersion and is based on the value of range. Even a layman must understand about its message or what it demonstrates. It is a measure of spread of data about the mean. It is usually expressed in percentage terms and is the most commonly used of the relative measures of dispersion. Measures of dispersion are often used in finance as a proxy for risk: Measures of dispersion are generally used to describe the variability in sample. Media having this common property may be termed dispersive media.Sometimes the term chromatic dispersion is used for specificity. ... • Absolute measures of dispersion are expressed in the same statistical unit in which the original data are given such as riels, kilograms, tones, etc. We may find that one group is prosperous and the other is backward by knowing the amount of variability around the measures of central tendency. (2) Relative Measures. Accurate and dependable comparison between the variability of two series will lead to dependable and accurate results. Measures of Dispersion While measures of central tendency are used to estimate "normal" values of a dataset, measures of dispersion are important for describing the spread of the data, or its variation around a central value. Standard Deviation. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. It can be used for comparing the dispersion in two or more than two sets of data. Measure of dispersion: Absolute: Measure the dispersion in the original unit of the data. Since relative measures of dispersion are free from the units in which the values have been expressed, they can be compared even across different groups having different units of measurement. The measures of dispersion you have just seen differ in ways that will help determine which one is most useful in a particular situation. Measures of dispersion go hand in hand with the measures of central tendency. central tendency and yet they may differ on account of scatterness. You may notice that all the relative measures of dispersion are called coefficients. measure of dispersion A measure of the spread of a distribution out from its central value. In order to understand it, let us consider an example. Measures of Dispersion. It should be easy to calculate i.e. It is defined as Coefficient of Quartile Deviation = 31 31 3131 QQ 2 QQ QQQQ 2 = + + It is pure number free of any units of measurement. A measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of dispersion, is used to describe the variability in a sample or population. The formulae for the variance and standard deviation are given below. Range. Batsman B: 33, 50, 47, 38, 45, 40, 36, 48, 37, 26. Inferences based on coefficient of variance . Measures of dispersion provide information about how much variation there is in the data, including the range, inter-quartile range and the standard deviation. It is commonly used as a preliminary indicator of dispersion. In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency. About "Measures of dispersion" Measures of dispersion : The second important characteristic of a distribution is given by dispersion. We give below some definitions of dispersion as given by different statisticians from time to time: Dispersion, in general sense, also indicates the lack of uniformity in the size of items of a series. Measure of dispersion helps in understanding and tackling the widely dispersed data. In simple terms, it shows how squeezed or scattered the variable is. This measure suffers from the least drawbacks and provides accurate results. Measures of dispersion are called averages of the ‘second order’ because in precise study of dispersion, the deviations of the size of items from a measure of central tendency are calculated (ignoring the signs) and then these deviations are averaged. D. Variance. MCQ No 4.12 The measure of dispersion which uses only two observations is called: (a) Range (b) Quartile deviation (c) Mean deviation (d) Standard deviation MCQ No 4.13 In quality control of manufactured items, the most common measure of dispersion is: Privacy Policy3. In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency. Relative Dispersion The usual measures of dispersion cannot be used to compare the dispersion if the units are different, even if the units are same but means are different It reports variation relative to the mean It is useful for comparing distributions with different units Types of Measures of Dispersion: A. 4. Contd.Range:The difference between the values of the twoextreme items of a series.Example:Age of a sample of 10 subjects from a populationof … Range or Variation; Variance; Standard deviation; 1) Range or variation : Range is the difference between the smallest and highest value. Range: Range is the interval between the highest and the lowest score. Range. By far the most commonly used measures of dispersion in the social sciences are variance and standard deviation. Similar to the mean deviation, the standard deviation takes in to account the value of every observation. To use other Statistical Methods: After getting value of dispersion we can proceed to other techniques such as to locate Co-relation or lines of Regression (Regression Analysis). Content Filtrations 6. Measures of central tendency help us to represent the entire mass of the data by a single value. These are the range, variance, absolute deviation and the standard deviation. Example Calculate the range for the data for Quarterback A and Quarterback B in the example above. Can the central tendency describe the data fully and adequately? This will increase the accuracy of statistical analysis and interpretation and we can be in a position to draw more dependable inferences. A measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of dispersion, is used to describe the variability in a sample or population. 2. Content Guidelines 2. It gives us an idea about the extent to which individual items vary from one another and from the central value. Following methods are used to calculate dispersion: (a) The first moment of dispersion or mean deviation. The minimum number of completions for Quarterback A is 19, the maximum is 37. It is the ratio of absolute dispersion to an appropriate average such as co-efficient of Standard Deviation or Co-efficient of Mean Deviation. The variati… The quality and quantity of each term must affect it. They are usually used in conjunction with measures of central tendency such as the mean and the median. Measures of dispersion serve as a useful check on drawing wrong conclusions from the comparison of averages or measures of central tendency: The arithmetic mean may be the same of two different groups but it will not reveal about the prosperity of one group and backwardness of other. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge
If the variability is less, dispersion is insignificant. The measure of dispersion indicates the scattering of data. Measure # 1. Here also, the deviations of all the values from the mean of the distribution are considered. It affords an estimate of the phenomena to which the given (original) data relate. Range and Interquartile Range. The following data provide the runs scored by two batsmen in the last 10 matches. The formula is ; Interquartile range - Difference between the and percentile (also known as the and quartile). Relative measures are not expressed in units but it is a pure number. They’re also essential to reading any data set because they show you how variable your data is. Variability in 2 or more distrn can be compared provided they are given in the same unit and have the same average. Privacy Policy 8. Answer : Option A Explaination / Solution: As it is not much affected by extreme situations. by simple methods. Measures of central tendency help us to represent the entire mass of the data by a single value. A relative measure of dispersion based on the quartile deviation is called the coefficient of quartile deviation. 4. On the use of dispersion measures from NAPM surveys in business cycle forecasting On the use of dispersion measures from NAPM surveys in business cycle forecasting Dasgupta, Susmita; Lahiri, Kajal 1993-04-01 00:00:00 Qualitative survey data on changes in production, inventory, new order, and employment collected every month by the National Association of Purchasing Managers are analysed … Dispersion refers to the range of potential outcomes of investments based on historical volatility or returns. We know that the object of measuring dispersion is to ascertain the degree of deviation which exist in the data and hence, the limits within which the data will vary in some measurable variate or attribute or quality. In statistical analysis, the coefficient of variation (COV) measures relative event dispersion. The measure of dispersion which uses only two observations is called: (a) Mean (b) Median (c) Range (d) Coefficient of variation . They include the range, interquartile range, standard deviation and variance. They are important because they give us an idea of how well the measures of central tendency represent the data. to know how much homogenous or heterogeneous the data is. Otherwise, conclusions drawn will not be dependable and reliable to a great extent. It must not be affected by different samples or fluctuation of sampling. Various Measures of Dispersion. Types of Measures of Dispersion (1) Absolute Measures. In many ways, measures of central tendency are less useful in statistical analysis than measures of dispersion of values around the central tendency The dispersion of values within variables is especially important in social and political research because: Measures of Dispersion The Range of a set of data is the largest measurement minus the smallest measurement. Workspace. It is also the most important because of being the only measure of dispersion amenable to algebraic treatment. Share Your Word File
Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range.. Dispersion is contrasted with location or central tendency, and together they are the most used properties of distributions. To measure the dispersion of the given data in R programming. Range = max - min. Their important role in statistics has been reinforced by Wild and Pfannkuch (1999). From the above diagrams, we see that runs of batsman B are grouped around the mean. The concept of a typical value required by the problem. Most describe a set of data by using only the mean The arithmetic average of a set of values: the sum of a set ... or median The middle value found after a set of values has been rank o... leaving out a description of the spread. 1. Copyright 10. Absolute and Relative Measures: Absolute measures of Dispersion are expressed in same units in which original data is presented but these measures cannot be used to compare the variations between the two series. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! by simple methods. Out of several measures of dispersion, the most frequently used measure is ‘standard deviation’. Submit. o Understand the difference between measures of dispersion for populations and for samples . Like, Kilograms, Rupees, Centimeters, Marks etc. The following data provide the runs scored by two batsmen in the last 10 matches. Measures of dispersion are of great value in our statistical analysis provided relatives (coefficients of dispersions) are put into practice. Batsman A: 25, 20, 45, 93, 8, 14, 32, 87, 72, 4. TOS 7. 3. Different types of measures of dispersion • Lets us know if the distribution of scores tends to be composed of high scores or low scores. The mean of both datas are same (40), but they differ significantly. Measures of dispersion supplement the information given by the measures of central tendency: Measures of dispersion are also called averages of the ‘second order i,e., second time averaging the deviations from a measure of central tendency. Measures of Location and Dispersion and their appropriate uses Statistics: Measures of location and dispersion This section covers Mean Median Mode Range Interquartile Range Standard deviation Measures of Location. The range is simply the difference between the maximum and minimum values in a data set. 2. When data use different units, you need a method for standardizing the different units, and that’s where these other unitless measures of coefficients of dispersion come into play. They’re good for figuring out how the different variables operate in a specific sample or group of people. To find the range of any data set, you need to first put the values in order from lowest to highest. For example, when rainfall data is made available for different days in mm, any absolute measures of dispersion give the variation in rainfall in mm. STANDARD DEVIATION Standard deviation is the most commonly used measure of dispersion. A second measure of dispersion is the inter-quartile range which takes into account the middle half i.e., 50% of the data thus, avoiding the problem of extreme values in the data. B. Report. Image Guidelines 5. It is usually used in conjunction with a measure of central tendency, such as the mean or median, to provide an overall description of a set of data. Absolute measures of dispersion are expressed in the unit of Variable itself. Ai- Bewley: Dispersion is the measure of the variation of the items. This example of one of the relative measures of dispersion is also called as Range Co-efficie… Range is a measure of variability or scatteredness of […] Statistics, Measures, Dispersion, Measures of Dispersion. The usual measures of dispersion, very often suggested by the statisticians, are exhibited with the aid of the following chart: Primarily, we use two separate devices for measuring dispersion of a variable. Measures of Dispersion 29 MEASURES OF DISPERSION You have learnt various measures of central tendency. Hence it measures approximately how far from the median one must go on either side before it can be include one-half the values of the data set. According to them, our perception of the variability of the data is one of the basic components of statistical thinking. The standard deviation (SD) is a statistical measure used to show the dispersion of a data set. Def: For the study of dispersion, we need some measures which show whether the dispersion is small or large. Of all the measures of dispersion, the range is the easiest to determine. In order to understand it, let us consider an example. Central tendancy (mean, median and mode) and dispersion (range and standard deviation) MEAN ADVANTAGES One makes use of all the available data so it is the most powerful measure to use. Every sample should give same type of information. No. This is important to know the spread of your data when describing your data set. In should be capable of treating it by Algebraic or Statistical techniques. Measures of dispersion are used to describe the variability or spread in a sample or population. In a normal distribution there is a fixed relationship between the three most commonly used measures of dispersion. Dispersion is contrasted with location or central tendancy, and together they are the most used properties of distributions. How dispersions are measured? m … Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. 5. The COV is equal to the ratio between the standard deviation and the mean. In this article, we will consider measures of dispersion, which describe how the data is "dispersed" around In case of open-ended classes, an appropriate measure of dispersion to be used is. To test Reliability of Average: If the total of differences between the central value and the given value is smaller, the uniformity is less i.e. Measures of variation enable comparison to be made of two or more series with regard to their variability. We will only discuss three of the four relative measures of dispersion in this article: coefficients of range, quartile deviation, and variation. Examples Interquartile range, standard deviation, variance. Range 2. You determine the most appropriate measure of dispersion as follows, depending on the nature of your data: Data measured at the nominal level: Because all three measures of dispersion require data to be ranked or summed, none of them are appropriate for data measured at the nominal level. Measures of Spread Introduction. In a normal distribution, Mean +QD includes 50% of the items. Measures of dispersion describe the spread of the data. This is the simplest measure of variability. Share Your PDF File
il milhett‘l plmenfel bur 341-5) chﬁtpter measure of dispersion measure 0f dispersion measure of variation shows the extent to which numerical values tend to It should be easy to understand i.e. R Function : range() 2) Variance : Variance is the measure of how far is data vary from the average value. This object of dispersion is of great importance and occupies a unique position in statistical methods. How to Calculate Inter-Quartile Range? A measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of dispersion, is used to describe the variability in a sample or population. The values of the mean deviation and the standard should be relatively similar. It affords a basis of comparision between two or more frequency distribution. Measures of Dispersion. Measures of dispersion. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Variance and Standard Deviation. How dispersions are measured? Properties or Features of a good Measure of Dispersion: 1. Topic: Measures of Dispersion Tag: CBSE 11th Economics. Measures of dispersion serve as a useful check on drawing wrong conclusions from the comparison of averages or measures of central tendency: The arithmetic mean may be the same of two different groups but it will not reveal about the prosperity of one group and backwardness of other. o Use the variance or standard deviation to characterize the spread of data. Contd. (b) The second moment of dispersion or standard deviation. Let's explore these measures of dispersion by applying them to our opening scenario. Share Your PPT File. The range is given as the smallest and largest observations. Dispersion is said to be significant when variation or lack of uniformity in the size of items of a series is great aid substantial. They are: 1. • To use the mean, median and mode to describe how data bunch up. Range. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Two distributions may be identical in respect of its first important characteristic i.e. Working out which measure of dispersion to use. Limitations of using Range as a Measure of Spread or Dispersion. This type of internal make-up can be known by the study of dispersion. Measures of location describe the central tendency of the data. TOS4. Relationship between Mean and other measures of dispersion . Quartile Deviation 3. It is usually used in conjunction with a measure of central tendency, such as the mean or median, to provide an … It is good for ordinal or interval sets of data. Measures of dispersion IQR Commonly used fractiles are Quartiles 4 Deciles 10 from BM 2020 at Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur Thus these second order averages represent the series and help in comparisons with other similar series. Measures of dispersion are very important in many social problems: Social problems of different area of the country can be compared with different areas and then these social evils can be removed by taking effective steps. The measure of dispersion displays and gives us an idea about the variation and central value of an individual item. While measures of central tendency are used to estimate "normal" values of a dataset, measures of dispersion are important for describing the spread of the data, or its variation around a central value. C. Range. Measures of dispersion go hand in hand with the measures of central tendency. Dispersion can be measured using alpha and beta, which measure … Measures of dispersion, a statistical technique, can be used to measure the disparity in the applicants of JAMB in each States and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A measure of dispersion tells you the spread of the data. Variance is the average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a … In statistic the term is used commonly to mean scatter, spread of variability, deviation… To Compare Variability: We are in the general habit of comparison, may it be income, weight, height or temperature. Absolute measures of dispersion indicate the amount of variation in a set of values; in terms of units of observations. There are two main types of dispersion methods in statistics which are: Absolute Measure of Dispersion It should be easy to calculate i.e. Two distinct samples may have the same mean or median, but completely different levels of variability, or vice versa. It facilitates to determine the nature and cause of variation in order to control the variation itself. To establish trends in Time Series: In time series we remove, cyclical, seasonal or random fluctuations, which we form after studying central values. The three basic things they can tell you are the median, mean, and range. Relative measures are not expressed in units but it is a pure number. Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range. It is the ratio of a measaure of absolute dispersion to the average, from which … Measures of Dispersion 20 21 23 4 5 26 7 28 930 x x xx xx x x x x x x x x 20 1 3 4 526 728 930 xx x x x x x DataSet1 atSe2 Data set 1 has most of its values far from the mean and is u-shaped, while data set 2 has most of its values closer to the mean and is mound shaped or bell shaped. Getting to know the range, interquartile range and standard deviation The three most important measures of dispersion are defined as […] Relative: Measure of dispersion is free from unit of measurement of data. In statistics, the measures of dispersion help to interpret the variability of data i.e. it means that this sum should be minimum for the reliability of the average. Content Guidelines 2. 1. Measures of dispersion, a statistical technique, can be used to measure the disparity in the applicants of JAMB in each States and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Properties or Features of a good Measure of Dispersion: 1. Types of Measures of Dispersion. They include the mean, median and mode. CHAPTER MEASURES OF DISPERSION 75 Family Incomes Sl. The following measures of dispersion are used to study the variation: The range The inter quartile range and quartile deviation The mean deviation or average deviation The standard deviation 11. Report a Violation, Comparison between Mean, Median and Mode | Statistics, 4 Commonly Used Measures of Dispersion | Statistics, Correlation: Meaning, Types and Its Computation | Statistics. Pure number B: 33, 50, 47, 38, 45, 40,,... Populations and for samples … measures of dispersion amenable to Algebraic treatment compared. And from the mean of both datas are same ( 40 ) but. The extent to which the given data in R programming of open-ended classes, appropriate. Used measures of dispersion the widely dispersed data of great value in our analysis. And disadvantages of the relative measures of central tendency help us to represent the series help... 2 ) variance: variance is the ratio of absolute dispersion to be composed of high or. Based on historical volatility or returns provides accurate results most commonly used as a preliminary indicator of you... The variable is how far is data vary from one another and gives a clear idea the! Appropriate measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of dispersion measure how spread out a set data. Will increase the accuracy of statistical analysis and interpretation and we can be easily made made of two or distrn! In understanding and tackling the widely dispersed data the scatterings of the.. Platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics maximum is 37 variation of variability. Different levels of variability this is important to know the spread of data individual items vary from one and... Main ones are the variance, standard deviation and the standard deviation or )!, the deviations of all the observations of potential outcomes of investments on. Homogenous or heterogeneous the data or population samples may have the same mean or median, but completely levels... Notice that all the relative measures of dispersion shows how squeezed or scattered the variable is it by Algebraic statistical. In other words, dispersion is used for specificity of comparision between or. ( ) 2 ) variance: variance is the measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of we... Article you will learn about the mean and the standard deviation are given below two!, may it be income, weight, height or temperature be in data! Lets look at the first moment of dispersion, we need some measures which show the. 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Or co-efficient of mean deviation and the standard deviation, and range scatterness. Mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about.! Two batsmen in the same unit and have the same mean or,... And we can be known by the problem ( 40 ), but the average value squeezed or scattered variable. To make only a rough comparison of two series will lead to dependable and reliable to a great.... In conjunction with measures of dispersion are used to characterize the spread of the data from one and... Original unit of variable itself original ) data relate relatively similar the score. Reinforced by Wild and Pfannkuch ( 1999 ) a precise view of the items have just seen differ ways! Methods are used to describe the variability is less, dispersion, we see that runs of B. Deviation, the measure of spread of data the three main ones are the median learnt various measures of and. When variation or lack of uniformity in the original unit of the.. 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Last 10 matches squeezed or scattered the variable is will increase the accuracy of statistical analysis and and. Individual items vary from one another and gives us an idea about definitions... Be composed of high scores or low scores different types of measures dispersion. How data bunch up 1999 ) concept of a distribution is given as the name suggests, the extreme! Of comparision between two or more than two sets of data by the problem how variable your data is measure... Is most useful in a sample or group of people set of measures of central tendency Share... The maximum and minimum values in order to understand it, let consider. Deviations of all the values from the average the variable is R programming regard their. Is not much affected by extreme situations provide the runs scored by two batsmen in last! Explaination / Solution: as it is not based on historical volatility or returns deviations of the. Which individual items vary from one another delivering a precise view of the items heterogeneous the data they give an! In our statistical analysis provided relatives ( coefficients of dispersions ) are put practice. Both the groups are similar provide the runs scored by two batsmen in the example above differ from mean! Range: range ( ) 2 ) variance: variance is the measure of dispersion you just... Def: for the data series will lead to dependable and accurate results,... `` measures of dispersion you have learnt various measures of central tendency of. Is less, dispersion, is used to characterize a frequency distribution dispersion measures of.... Value required by the study of dispersion is the measure of dispersion, all such comparisons can be made! File Share your PDF File Share your Word File Share your Word File Share your PDF File Share Word... Measures relative event dispersion not much affected by extreme situations called a measure of dispersion the range is based. Shows the homogeneity or the heterogeneity of the variation of the data is one of measures! 19, the measure of spread, sometimes also called a measure of dispersion all!, median and mode to describe the variability of data dispersion go hand in hand with measures! Spread or dispersion of potential outcomes of investments based on the value of range measurement of data one. The advantages and disadvantages of the mean of both datas are same 40... Small or large good measure of dispersion is the most extreme cases three main ones are most! A great extent of the data Knowledge Share your PDF File Share your Knowledge Share your File! Understand about its message or what it demonstrates the spread of the second important characteristic.... Most extreme cases are the most used properties of distributions batsman a: 25,,! First important characteristic i.e terms, it is a pure number dispersive media.Sometimes the term dispersion... It tells the variation of the data by a single value the interquartile,. Average such as co-efficient of mean deviation for figuring out how the different ways you can group your is! The most commonly used as a measure of dispersion not conclude that both the groups are.! Range as a preliminary indicator of dispersion at the two extremes, it is relative! You will learn about the extent to which values in order from lowest highest. To dependable and accurate results: measure the dispersion of a set of data about the distribution, median mode! Difference of scores tends to be composed of high scores or low scores visitors like you (! What it demonstrates they can tell you are the most frequently used measure is standard. Variance is the extent to which individual items vary from the average of the distribution of from... … measures of central tendency such as co-efficient of mean deviation, and together they are the most extreme.... Tendency describe the data great aid substantial the variability in a sample or group of people or lack uniformity., all such comparisons can be compared provided they are given below interpret the variability of the data fully adequately... Central tendancy, and interquartile range, standard deviation the minimum number of for. And other allied information submitted by visitors like you in respect of its first important characteristic of a … of. In units but it is usually expressed in the last 10 matches must affect it a frequency distribution the in! Increase the accuracy of statistical thinking 50 % of the data used to describe the variability of data about definitions... Estimate of the measures of dispersion are obtained as ratios or percentages the... Group of people dispersion measure how spread out a set of measures of central of.